Use Security Software That Updates Automatically
Scammers, hackers, and identity thieves constantly develop new ways to attack your computer, so your security software must be up-to-date to protect against the latest threats. Most security software can update automatically; set yours to do so. You can find free security software from well-known companies. Also, set your operating system and web browser to update automatically.
Don't buy security software in response to unexpected pop-up messages or emails, especially messages that claim to have scanned your computer and found malware. Scammers send messages like these to try to get you to buy worthless software, or worse, to "break and enter" your computer.
Treat Your Information Like Cash
Your Social Security number, credit card numbers, and bank and utility account numbers can be used to steal your money or open new accounts in your name. So every time you are asked for your personal information — whether in a web form, an email, a text, or a phone message — think about whether you can really trust the request. In an effort to steal your information, scammers will do everything they can to appear trustworthy.
Consider obtaining a credit card to dedicate for online and daily use and request a low available balance that matches your weekly or monthly spending habits. If your account information is stolen and used fraudulently any charges to the card over the spending limit will be denied. Most credit card companies also let you set up text or email alerts to notify you of charges that are made over a set amount.
Check Out Companies to Find out Who You're Really Dealing With
When you're online, a little research can save you a lot of money. If you see an ad or an offer that looks good to you, take a moment to check out the company behind it. Type the company or product name into your favorite search engine with terms like "review," "complaint," or "scam." If you find bad reviews, you'll have to decide if the offer is worth the risk. If you can't find contact information for the company, take your business elsewhere.
Don't assume that an ad you see on a reputable site is trustworthy. The fact that a site features an ad for another site doesn't mean that it endorses the advertised site, or is even familiar with it.
Give Personal Information Over Encrypted Websites Only
If you're shopping or banking online, stick to sites that use encryption to protect your information as it travels from your computer to their server. To determine if a website is encrypted, look for https at the beginning of the web address (the "s" is for secure).
Some websites use encryption only on the sign-in page, but if any part of your session isn't encrypted, the entire account could be vulnerable. Look for https on every page of the site you're on, not just where you sign in.
Many phone and tablet apps are not secure and there is really no way to insure that they are. When banking or conducting sensitive business, use your phone or tablet's web browser and check for https security.
Protect Your Passwords
Here are a few principles for creating strong passwords and keeping them safe:
- The longer the password, the tougher it is to crack. Use at least 10 characters; 16 is ideal for most home users.
- Mix letters, numbers, and special characters. Try to be unpredictable — don't use your name, birthdate, or common words.
- Don't use the same password for accounts. If it's stolen from you — or from one of the companies with which you do business — it can be used to take over all your accounts.
- Never share your passwords with anyone. Legitimate companies will not send you messages asking for your password. If you get such a message, it's probably a scam.
- Set up software like browsers and phone apps to require a password each time you login. Turn off and never use any "remember my password" features.
- If you print them out or write them down keep your passwords in a secure place, out of plain sight.
- Use 2-step login verification for online accounts if it is available. When you login you can get either a text message or a voice message with a verification code that is required to complete the login process. It's unlikely that a scammer will have access to the device required to get your verification code.
Back Up Important Files
No system is completely secure. Copy important files onto a removable disc, an external hard drive, or jump drive, and store it in a safe place — you can also use a secure cloud drive. If your computer is stolen or compromised, you'll still have access to your files.
Cloud drives have varying degrees of security. Some are notoriously insecure. You need to research your options and choose the one that best fits your personal security plan.